Beardsley] is quite right in calling me to account for misapplying the term 'exemplification' in certain cases that amount only to instantiation. To say a picture is of a certain kind — say a Churchill-picture or a centaur-picture — is not to say that the picture exemplifies but only that it instantiates a label for, or possesses the property of being such a picture.
But, so my hypothesis: Would it not be possible to speak of self-exemplification in the case of many metaphors in poetry? Could it not be that these metaphors possess the quality of being metaphors and refer to their metaphorical status? In this way metaphors could turn out to be an exemplification of some linguistic potential inherent to natural languages cf. Kants concept of hypotyposis.
And could that kind of poetic reference cf. Ricoeur's "split reference" not be characterized as mimesis based on linguistic mediality, on a mimesis without perceptual resemblance and so meet the Benjaminian requirements? Currently it seems to me that two different types of mimesis should be assumed: one in any case of metaphor which I would like to call schema mimesis and one which occurs when poetry reflects upon its own linguistic mediality, which I would like to call self-referential mimesis or exemplificational mimesis.
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The question to be put to schema mimesis: if metaphor provides a novel organization of the realm, to which it is applied — as the metaphorical scheme classifies together objects in the realm that are not classified together by any literal scheme — then: are that realm and the objects and their properties completely unstructured before being metaphorically represented? Or could one suppose that this realm must have some intrinsic order of objects and properties that resembles the order of the labels within the scheme transferred to it?
In the latter case metaphor would expose something about the objects and the properties of the realm and therefore be a mimetic act. I wonder if this has anything to do with diagrammatic iconicity. The question to be put to selfreferential mimesis: Would it not be possible to repudiate the answer of Goodman to Beardsley cf.
And would it not be possible to return to Goodman's original concept that some utterances in a natural language may possess the property of being utterances of that type and refer to that possession? If yes, that would mean that these utterances exemplify their own linguistic mediality. In case of metaphors — and NB: we are in the field of poetry — one instantiation exemplifies metaphor as a whole.
And if we take seriously Walter Benjamin's myth of an ideal language that evolves in poetry, then this exemplification could turn out to be a case of mimesis of the world in a self-referential way as supposed by radical constructivism. This modern, formally orientated reading of the concept of mimesis would perfectly match the Aristotelian definition of mimesis: not the result of a work of art but the process of world creation, natural or artistic, must resemble nature. It would, furthermore, match the Platonic definition of philosophical mimesis, which is self-referential and differs in that regard from poetical mimesis which is in Platon's view based upon an ordinary subject-object-relation.
What does this renewed conception of mimesis mean for a concept of metaphor, especially for metaphor in science? In Western science we see a historical shift toward the belief that analogy rather than generalized metaphor provides a basis for scientific inquiry. Kuhn's view that metaphors are fundamental to science, providing on occasions "an irreplaceable part of the linguistic machinery of a scientific theory," playing a role that is "constitutive of the theories they express, rather than merely exegetical".
Kuhn , This could imply that knowledge in science is strongly related to the linguistic means by which scientific theories are formulated. And this could further imply that poetry which refers to its own linguistic mediality could turn out to be a crucial sceptical challenge to knowledge based theories in science. Mimesis and Metaphor Mimesis and Metaphor. Abstract In my paper an up-to-date and renewed conception of mimesis and metaphor shall be sketched. References Beardsley, M. Elgin ed.
Benjamin, W. Gentner, D. Goodman, N. Kuhn , "Metaphor in Science", in Andrew Ortony ed.
Aspects of the problems of translating metaphor, with special reference to modern Arabic poetry
Ricoeur, P. Schwartz, R. Thomas Eder. Falch, Heinz W.
This statement suggests somehow that language and Metaphor is embodied, embedded and external, and that the mind is not only contained in the head. The causally active physical vehicles of content and of cognitive processes could be spread across the biological organism and the world.
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Other aspects of Metaphor, such as translation, will be used to illustrate and elucidate some aspects of the concept, navigating for other seas, some of which are related to the nature of the ongoing research, such as computational aspects, models, interfaces and visual metaphors. Andy Clark Memento, The first part, theory, contains five chapters.
In chapter 1 general theories of metaphor are discussed; interaction, imagination and experientialist theory. In chapter 2 poetic metaphor is examined; its interpretation, its aesthetic values, the part played by the imagination in processing metaphor, the importance of cultural knowledge and the problems of translation.
What is the Difference Between Metaphor and Simile?
In chapter 3 the metonymymetaphor relationship is assessed, and in chapter 4 the notion of dead metaphor is examined. In chapter 5, light is shed on the use of poetic metaphor in the Arab media and in particular on its use as an effective device to persuade the audience to accept the current peace discourse in the Middle East. Part 2, data analysis, also consists of five chapters of which chapter 6 is the introduction to the data analysis, and links the two parts of the thesis together.
The findings of this research may be summarised as follows: the translation of Arabic poetic metaphor into English requires most importantly the recreation of a similar cultural experience in the TL. The data analysis shows that, in certain cases, it is easy to restructure the ST metaphoric experience with the same experience in the TL.